India-Pakistan relation has been rocky since the creation of both nations.
Since partition in 1947, they have followed the path of mutual animosity.
India chose to become a secular nation (with 85% Hindus and 15% other religions).
Pakistan became a Muslim majority nation.
During partition, over 17 million people were eventually displaced.
It was one of the largest populations exchange in history.
Violence broke out with Muslims on one side and Sikhs and Hindus on the other.
The British had left, but uniting 562 princely states was a huge task.
Each state could remain independent or accede to India or join Pakistan.
The violent competition began to win more states for their nation, especially with Hyderabad and Kashmir.
Pakistan demanded Kashmir as it has more than 70% Muslims.
But, the Maharaja of Kashmir had signed the Instrument of Accession.
He had agreed that the State of Jammu and Kashmir would become a part of India.
Every year as both nations celebrate their Independence, the struggle for Kashmir continues.
India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars to date.
The year 1947, saw the first war, also called the First Kashmir War, soon after the partition.
The second war was in the year 1965. It began…
Following Pakistan’s designed infiltration of forces into Jammu and Kashmir (Operation Gibraltar).
The third was in the year 1971. It did NOT involve the issue of Kashmir.
But, India intervened to end the Bangladesh War of Independence.
As a result, Pakistan was defeated leading to the creation of Bangladesh.
The fourth was in the year 1999 – Kargil War.
Pakistani troops infiltrated across the Line of Control (LoC) and occupied Indian territory mostly in the Kargil district.
Until 1971, India continued to harbour ambivalent feelings about nuclear weapons.
But, the third confrontation with Pakistan in 1971…
Lead India to successfully test-fire its first nuclear bomb in 1974.
But, due to international pressure, it did not undertake additional tests until 1998.
In 1998, India conducted its second instance of nuclear testing under the then Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Pakistan responded quickly with the same.
Soon, the two new nuclear power nations faced a series of detonations from the international community.
Over the years, India has taken several initiatives to sort out the issues with its neighbour.
From Samjhauta Express to inviting the then Pakistan’s PM Nawaz Sharif to PM Narendra Modi’s swearing-in ceremony.
But, Pakistan has not reciprocated equally.
As Pakistan terrorist outfits continue to sponsor cross border terrorism
We all hope and pray for peace to restore in the valley very soon.